Links to Pages with Video Tutorials (mp4 format)
A. Brief Clips

Hittorf (Detour) Tube illustrating obstructed and constricted glow discharges.

Electron Beam Formation in a glow discharge tube. Plasma produced electrons illuminate a phosphor screen and show the shadow of an obstructing element.

B. Extended Tutorials
These tutorials make use of a small intrumented vacuum system and include voice narrations. The Closed-Loop Pressure Control tutorial makes use of an MKS Instruments 153 "Smart" exhaust throttle valve. All tutorials use the Logger Pro 3 data collection and analysis software with related interface and sensor hardware from Vernier Software & Technology.

Measuring Pumping Speed

Gas Flow Through an Orifice

Closed-Loop Pressure Control in Vacuum Systems


Ion beam from a coaxial plasma gun as it passes through the poles of a permanent magnet. Visible are the charged beam components separated by energy, charge and mass. Articles on this plasma gun appeared in
Vol. 2, No. 1 and Vol. 3, No. 3.


I have built a number of these pumping systems for the American Vacuum Society's high school teachers workshops. Complete construction details are included in Vol. 7, No.1.


The 1997 National Symposium of the American Vacuum Society featured an exhibit on the history of the electron, celebrating the 100th anniversary of the discovery by Sir John Joseph Thomson (1856-1940) that the electron was a particle with mass. The exhibit represented a collaboration between the AVS and the Perham Foundation of Los Altos, CA. Included in the exhibit were a display of historic vacuum tubes, a 40 ft. timeline with important events in the history of vacuum and electronics from 1875 to the present, videos related to the history of vacuum tubes and radio, and three displays specific to Thomson's work. One was a non-functional replica of Thomson's cathode ray tube with which he determined the ratio of the electron's charge to its mass (e/m), a commercial e/m apparatus for school use (made by Pasco Scientific of Roseville, CA) and the home-brew apparatus shown above that was made by the author. Details on the construction and use of the apparatus are in Vol. 6, Nos. 3&4 (combined issue).


This shows my reactor chamber set up for plasma polymerization. Gas enters through the fittings at the top. The reaction region in this parallel plate configuration is the area between the opposed electrodes in the upper part of the apparatus. Gas is exhausted from the bottom (the fitting is below the countertop). A gauge port is located at the lower right of the chamber.


This is one of my more recent pseudospark electron sources.


Here I am at Temasek Polytechnic (Singapore) in December, 1999 completing the installation of several MKS Instruments Vacuum Training Systems. In attendance were faculty, students and officials from the Education Ministry. I made a number of trips to Singapore to install and train faculty from a number of institutions.


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